The Adhan and the Iqamah are two requisites performed before the actual Solat prayer. Adhan is calling which notify people and advise them to come for prayer. While Iqamah is somehow similar to Adhan, it’s said when Muslims are on the line and the Imam is at their front.
By calling Iqamah, the prayer starts immediately.
Both the Adhan and the Iqamah are community obligations (Fard Kifaayah) for
men who are not travelling (in a state of residence), while they are Sunnah for one
praying alone and travellers.
This means Adhan and the Iqamah is not compulsory for anyone performing prayer alone or travellers ( those that are on a journey).
The meaning of ‘ Sunnah’ is that if they do it, they will be rewarded, and if they don’t call for Adhan or Iqamah, there won’t be any sin whatsoever.
But that’s for men.
As for women, they are disliked (Makrooh).
Adhan and Iqamah before their time is not right
Neither the Adhan nor the Iqamah is allowed to be made before their times, except for the Adhan of the Dawn Prayer (Fajr), for which the first of the two is allowed to be called any time after the middle of the night.
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